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Matt Fly

Bass Habits & Bass Basics 101

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A very good read for the beginner and experienced.

Bass IQ----

Fish Intelligence

By: Dr. Keith A. Jones, PF Fish Research Director

Don't get me wrong, I like my pet cat. In fact, through the years I've grown rather fond of the little fur ball. It's just that I'm not real sure about her intelligence level. I look into her eyes and all I see is empty space. The lights are on but nobody's home.

Many people wonder the same about fish. Do they show any sign of intelligence? Are some smarter than others? Could most of them take a college SAT exam and score about as high as your average High School adolescent? The answer to the first two questions is an unequivocal yes. The last question will have to wait until fish are allowed into college.

Although fish definitely show signs of intelligence, measuring intelligence is by no means easy. The problem is that often the questions we ask of animals hold little meaning for them. Like trying to train your pet rat to remember its name. Why should it? You're going to feed it anyway.

Nevertheless, biologists generally agree that an animal's ability to learn serves as a measurable criterion for intelligence. Having said that, I must quickly add that there are different types of learning. Just because an animal lacks proficiency in one type of learning doesn't doom it to mental mediocrity across the board. We see the same thing in humans. I can be both terrible at remembering Spanish tenses but great at memorizing math facts.

So do fish learn? Absolutely. One clear example is their ability to quickly learn spatial arrangements. Non-schooling species, and sometimes even schooling species, often establish home ranges where they focus most of their daily activity, much like teenagers hang out at the local drive-in burger joint. A few species, at some point in their lives, even establish territories areas which they defend against either all intruders or at least members of their own kind. Obviously, in order for these fish to recognize home ranges they have to first learn to differentiate home from non-home. That, in turn, entails learning where the boundaries lie; learning that one rock falls within the range, while another doesn't.

But perhaps the most crucial measure of intelligence, and one we humans place a great deal of value on, is associative reasoning. By associative reasoning I mean the ability to learn relationships between objects or events and then applying those relationships to novel situations. Although certainly not as advanced as humans, different fish species are definitely capable of associative reasoning.

Take, for example, the results of recent memory tests we did on largemouth bass at the Pure Fishing Fish Research Center. In these tests wherein a group of six bass were free to strike an artificial minnow for as long as they pleased, we could show that after several fruitless attempts to eat the artificial minnow the bass would soon abandon their attacks. In other words, through their failure to get a food reward, the bass quickly learned to ignore what normally looked liked a scrumptious appetizer.

But here comes the interesting part. Two weeks later we showed the same bass a second artificial minnow, similar in shape but easily distinguishable from the first. To our surprise the bass hardly touched the second minnow bait, although if we showed it to another group of naïve bass they would pound away at it just like the first group did on the original minnow. Clearly the experienced bass remembered their wasted efforts from the first time around and transferred that knowledge to an object they had never seen before. We had created bass impervious to minnow baits.

So how long did the bass retain their memory? For at least three months thereafter, which was the longest time period we tried. I personally have little doubt they bear the memory of their experience to this day and will probably do so for the rest of their lives.

Not bad for an animal that's never taken a college entrance exam!

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Hey bud,

     I really hope this post of your goes good, but you should check Rolo's post called "Are big bass smart?". In that topic post we thouroughly explored the question as to rather or not bass in general are smart and how they gain intellegence, instinctual behavior, locational behavior, and so on. I look forward to checking on the links you showed and I hope that this post takes off as well as the one mentioned did. I think the basses behavior and their learning curve are a big key to catching more and bigger fish. Good luck, I will check in later.

                         

                                              Peter

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Matt_Fly,

That's a home run! All those references makes for quite an interesting reading list. I have a couple of the books and a have read another, but I plan to persue the rest.

Thank you.

RoLo,

It might be interesting for us to find out the specific reference to Johnke's piece on "Deep Water". It may just be another opinion, but depending on whose opinion it is and how they developed this theory, it might be enlightening. This is NOT an "I told you so comment", I had read all that deep water theory somewhere, it is certainly not an original thought on my part. Anyhow, we'll look into it and see how much merit there really is to these statements.

I tend to fish deep water and would like to think I'm fishing in the right spots. The fact that big bass are caught in shallow water, as you have experienced, doesn't necessarily negate the deep water hypothesis. The short section on migration is particularly interesting, too. Maybe we'll all learn more as other members comment on articles they have read. I would especially like to see references to specific authors and publications so that I can try to follow up.

Ain't this fun?

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Good post Matt, this seems to be one of the hottest topics on the bass scene in todays fishing environment. Thanks for the links, hope to meet you at Fork in March.

PS. Just read your jokes and thought I would fall out of the chair laughing--more good work. You get a double attaboy in my book.

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Peter, I posted this because of that.   I agree with some and disagree with some.

I just want people to read and make a decsion on their fishing experiences.    The papers I added disagree with big bass living shallow, not one but all.   I do know people catch fish shallow, cause I have also, but I think the true trophies (What are we defining as a true trophy? 10,13,15?), the majority of true trophies go deep on waters with lots of boat traffic.  And heavy fished waters to.    

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You do realize Matt that he wrote that article for Berkely. I think if I was the director of bass research for product developement I might be predisposed to say the same things.

There is a major difference between subjecting 6 fish in a tank to an inanimate object for 90 days and subjecting fish in a lake to moving objects, which as inanimate as they may be on their own, they are still moving via the fisherman's input.

My 40+ years on the water watching baits come and go, and my 320+ days on the water each year has taught me that bass are almost as dumb as rocks. Between my son and I we have 6000+ hours a year that we spend on the water to observe these critters. We do not discount everything that comes down the pike, but 98% of what we know comes from working day in and day out in a tournament level enviornment where we have to come in first 98% of the time in order to say in business. New baits come and go, but not because the bass tired of them but rather because a phrase or advertisement has lit up the bait monkey that is in all of us and we just couldn't resist the impulse. Occasionally one of those new baits is a real winner.

Dr. Loren Hill, former Director of the Zoology Department and Biological Research Center at the University of Oklahoma, after nine years of research, established a range of 26 colors that were best visable to the eyes of a fish. Use the Color-C-Lector to determine the right lure color. Do you own one?

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I agree with George to a certain point, bass can be as stupid as a rock, but how stupid ? well that depends, fish can learn to associate events that can pose a threat to their survival, like boat traffic, during the weekends the boat traffic soars, the sound of running engines, anchors being dropped, lures being tossed at the water and seeing other fish caught ( or them being caught ) in the long run are going to cause fish to associate those events with danger, therefore on those days fish will develop shutmouthitits......to a certain point, some will some won 't.

Certain baits do cause the fish to react negatively to them specially after being exposed over and over again to them, others don 't. How can I say such thing ? well, my experience is based on what I 've seen with fish in a more controled environment, irrigation ponds. At first when you fish a pond where fish have never seen a lure you will do a killing, they will hit everything you throw at them, if you continue to fish the same place for an extended period of time you will see that the lure that produced during the first 2-3 trips slowly but surely will diminish it 's effectiveness as time goes by, after a while the lure is no longer productive, specially if you keep on presenting the bait in the same way. Leave the lure at home and give it a break for a couple of months and it will be productive again.

What are the key points here ? exposure and presentation, those count a lot on most lures with a couple of exceptions: jigs and soft plastic baits, there 's something in them that the fish just can 't seem to associate with danger, you may not catch the same fish on the same day but for what I have seen if you catch it in the morning you most probably won 't catch it in the afternoon, which doesn 't mean you can 't catch it tomorrow, I 've caught the same fish 4 times in the same week in the same location, with jigs and worms, this shows that fish can be as dumb as a rock.

Now, fish just can 't be smarter than you are, the catch is to outsmart them, the way you can do it is by studying how fish behave and understand how they react, it 's easier for you to be in their place than it is for them to be in your place, THINK and be CREATIVE on your presentation, if everybody is fishing with spinnerbaits without a trailer then put a trailer on yours, the results can be completely different for you, it 's not if the fish wants to strike your bait, it 's that you are going to make it strike your bait. It 's not the same.

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Raul,

What do you think about shallow vs. deep water discussion?

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as far as how smart fish are, I believe good old human nature has taken over and the whole ideal is being over-complicated and over-analyzed.  I don't believe its that complex of a thing and especially don't believe that fish will remember lures for life.  If they did that, they'd eventually starve given the general qualities of lures today.  If every time a fish was caught, that fish associated that particular look with danger or negative experiences, what would they eventually have left thats positive?  Fish, like most other primative animals, IMO, have short span memories that are constantly changing.  I just believe all these studies are making bass "intelligence" out to be more than it is.  After all, we need an excuse as to why we're not catching them  ;)  

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Raul,

What do you think about shallow vs. deep water discussion?

You asked Raul, but I wanted to add this... I will agree that a majority of big bass are usually deep but having caught 2 over 10lb and lots of 8-9lb bass in 2-6 feet of water, NOT during spawn and in different bodies of water... I feel comfortable in saying that you absolutely CAN catch big bass shallow. But I also think you will catch more big bass in deeper water.

And to keep with the original discussion, I think bass are a lot like dogs or people... some are very intelligent and others are well, just not! ;D

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Well, I don't think that has ever been questioned, we all know that big bass are caught in shallow water. As a matter of fact, I suspect most big bass are caught in shallow water mainly because that's where most guys fish. Also, after catching bass in shallow water under low light conditions, one might draw the conclusion that they live there all the time. I understand, that is a logical conclusion based on repeated observations. But is it in fact, true?

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Flechero,

having caught 2 over 10lb and lots of 8-9lb bass in 2-6 feet of water, NOT during spawn and in different bodies of water... I feel comfortable in saying that you absolutely CAN catch big bass shallow.

Based on the weights you posted above, you have boated more trophy largemouth than the average bear.

Let me ask you this, what makes you believe that the majority of big bass live in deep water?

Or perhaps I should ask, have you caught many BIG bass in deep water?

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I think that we need to clarify the fish that we are talking about. Largemouth bass are not deep water fish.

Habitat - Prefers clear, nonflowing waters with aquatic vegetation where food and cover are available. They occupy brackish to freshwater habitats, including upper estuaries, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and ponds. Also, they can tolerate a wide range of water clarities and bottom types, prefer water temperatures from 65 to 85 degrees, and are usually found at depths less than 20 feet.

Since I have been fishing for this critter a general rule was to fish the deepest shallow water you could find. That simply means: look for shallow water that is immediately adjacent to a deep water escape for the bass.

When I think of deep water bassin, I think spots or smallies and such, not largemouths. Of course, deep water is a relative thing. In a lake that has an average depth of 7 feet, a 12 foot hole would be deep.

I have yet to find a bait that they tire of. I have seen days when they won't hit spinner baits, or rattle traps, but that in no way means they have learned not to hit them.

Probably the most amazing thing of all that I have learned about largemouth bass is that they live by no rules. When they are supposed to be in two feet of water you find them in 9. When they are supposed to eat they don't, and when they shouldn't they do. Of course one of the reasons they are found to be opposite of our thought processes at times is because the thought process was ours, not theirs.

As it was wisely pointed out by several in this thread. K.I.S.S. - this isn't rocket science and when you try to make it so you are only confusing yourself. These fish are relatively easy to catch and it all has to do with finding them and then putting your bait in their face. Bass are members of the sunfish family. That makes them schoolers, not loners. Find one and you have found several. The more casts you make at them, the more you will catch.

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Matt_fly,

    I ask your forgiveness for underestimating your new topic. It has been one of the finest I have ever had the privelege to read. Give me a little while and after I do some home work on links for our fellow readers I would love to add my small two cents. I have found a way to get a bass to swallow a jig like lure (not a jig persey), let me get pictures together and what not first.

                                                 Peter

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Flechero,

having caught 2 over 10lb and lots of 8-9lb bass in 2-6 feet of water, NOT during spawn and in different bodies of water... I feel comfortable in saying that you absolutely CAN catch big bass shallow.

Based on the weights you posted above, you have boated more trophy largemouth than the average bear.

Let me ask you this, what makes you believe that the majority of big bass live in deep water?

Or perhaps I should ask, have you caught many BIG bass in deep water?

First let me say that I have been priveledged to fish in some great water over the years, some public and some private and also been lucky on some occasions.  Keep in mind that "deep" is relative.  I based my post on the fact that I have caught more big bass deep than shallow... in my world deep is anything over 15 feet when bass fishing.

I'll follow up later, I need to run.

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Roadwarrior,

You have repeatedly stated that you have an affinity for deep water bass fishing.  You have also repeatedly stated your fondness for the Fat Ika and the 6" Senko.  I believe you have also said that these are shallow water baits.  How do you put all this together to form a logical conclusion?  From your perspective, how deep is deep?  Also, do the Fat Ika nad the Senko figure into your deep water presentation?

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Wow! Cephkiller, you are certainly paying attention to my posts. Thank you, that is quite a compliment and I will answer you specifically. This is why I am so interested in this deep water/ shallow water discussion.

First of all, I have caught several 10+ bass and all but three were caught on Senkos. I fish weightless soft plastics in <12" of water, but in my ponds that might be "deep"". The three I have caught on other lures (Gitzit, Norman Fat Boy and Micro Munch Jig) were caught on structure next to the very deepest water in the pond or lake. Most of my biggest fish, aside from 10+, have been caught on deep, sharply sloping points adjacent to VERY deep water. The rest, with few exceptions were caught either on major drops and ledges or what might appear to be the middle of the lake where an old creek feeds into the old river which is now the lake.

Now I'm only addressing largemouth bass in this post, and bigger bass. I have caught lots of four and five pound bass in shallow water on a variey of lures, but I believe they were visiting a feeding area, not spending their lives there. Even when bass are shallow, I think they are aware of an escape to deep water. To the extent that natural lakes in Florida and other areas do not have deep water, then it becomes relative or perhaps when bass do not have an option, these observations do not apply.

For the past eighteen months or so, I have caught the majority of my 5+ bass on the Fat Ika in relatively shallow water but again, very near deep water. I fish structure, not cover. I fish deep or at least relatively deep for the water I am fishing. I only fish for big fish and I think that's where they live.

Finally, Cephkiller, I do not use Senkos or Fat Ika weighted or on C-rigs. For "deep" presentations I prefer tubes, Kreatures and Kut-Tail, T-rigged. I occasionally use Gitzits on C-rigs, but for the most part I fish GYCB Laminated Lizards. This winter I am fishing jigs almost exclusively and hope to develop a level of confidence in jigs that will make this lure my main deep water presentation. Over the past two months I have only caught six bass on my ponds, but five have been 5+ lbs.

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Alright boys here goes, Matt_fly, when you spoke about the way a bass would not swallow a jig, I would have to say that you are without doubt right. But the combination lure I will describe to you is one great lure that a bass will hold on to and even, dare I say, swallow! Yes, I dare say. What I do for alll of my jig presentations, unless a roller jig or stand up jig presentation is required, is I rig a Slipp-n-Jig and then tie on a 4/0 wide gap hook and texas rig a paca craw. Now what a Slip-n-Jig is, is a worm dancer or in laymens terms a bullet weight endowed with a skirt. A Paca Craw is a tube bait that resembles a craw fish worm. Here are the sotes that anyone can look at to get an idea of what this rig would look like: www.cyclonebaits.com & www.netbait.com. The Cyclone Baits are made in Many, Louisiana and the NetBaits are made in Georgiana, Alabama.

I had always wondered why a bass would sometimes end up swallowing the Slip-n-Jig Paca Craw combo but not an ordinary jig and you answer in the first post sums it up. The Bass can chew on that soft tube and feel that they are geting somewhere.

To the big bass location I notice that we all say that we find bass either in the shallows near deep water or vica versa. I beleive as do most of us that heses bass have pegged out these types of areas because they offer protection in the deep water and easy access to feeding in the shallow. It is the combination of these two depths bing so close together that I beleive draws these big bass.

Bass learning is as Matt_Fly pointed out is through imperical knowledge for the most part but like all other creatures they are not simply a blank slate at birth, they are gifted by instinct. Instinctual behavior is what determines a bass' home area, feeding preferences, and what gets him caught. It is the imperical knowledge that can keep him from being caught twice. Bass use reason to a certain extent to peice together the imperical data and instinctual knowledge and past experience to for habits and behavioral patterns just as we do. Bass simply do this with out giving thought to the matter. All animals with a functioning brain do this.

Peter

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To follow up on my earlier post, I think that a higher % of big bass stay deeper. Yes, some move up to feed and I think that is all they are doing. In waters that have a forage available in deep water, I don't think the big ones go shallow to feed. (or at least most don't) This is one of many reasons that swimbaits and other large baits like the 6"-7" Senkos, jig & pigs, and large deep diving cranks do so well. You either catch them on a food route in shallower water or you get them in deeper water. I truly believe that some don't ever go shallow. I spent years studying bass movement and behavior (years ago) only to realize that it's as simple as hunting white tailed deer, bucks in particular. The big ones have routes they stick to and if you can pattern them, you can take them. Typically those routes are not the easy or obvious ones, that is exactly how they lived to reach the age of majority. I can't tell you how many hundreds of hours I spent sending jigs and large soft plastics by catfish, carp and other big echos on the graph, trying to find the big bass... It is truly a game of patience, I can fish a whole day looking for one bite but few of the people I take fishing are willing to do that, they just want to catch some fish. The other factor, most don't recognize is that big bass eat big meals, so you may be in the right place (wrong time) and the 10lb or 12lb that just watched your bait go by may have eaten an hour ago and will not eat again for several more hours or until tomorrow, but you dismiss it as a catfish or carp on the sonar and look for new water.

I wish I had seen this thread 4 or 5 years ago, I only fish for fun these days and am not up to date on the biology, current patterns/movements, or lake trends like I used to be. These days I will Have "a feeling" of a bait or place to try... and it stems from years of study but most times I can't recall why I think it. Case and point - Sunday I went out and saw something in the water... I haven't even thrown Cotton Candy Chartruse in over a year but knew it was right for some reason (and still had a bag of them, deep in a bait box)... Boom, right off the bat, I started catching fish, one was a good one in the mid 7's. The place and pattern we were fishing hadn't supported throwing a 6"lizard in months but my partner was throwing the same zoom lizards in every other color with no success. I can only guess as to why that struck me and why it worked, other than something was familiar in the water color or weather... but several years ago i could have given specific reasons as to why. All I remember is that the water looked like a senario from years past, and it worked.

Study your prey like you were fishing to feed you're family... it's amazing how much the lake and fish will tell you ... if you pay attention to them.

Back to depth.... I grew up fishing HAWL and Fork, before either were a big name so that accounts for a lot of big ones without any extra skill involved. Countless fish in the 7-10 lb range lived in the shallows until fishing pressure caught up to them. I have managed to get a good number of big fish in other waters by using what those places taught me in terms of structure, cover and food sources. I now live in Central Tx and my home lake is Belton... lake record is 11 lbs and change, I think, not so great by my old standards... But this is a deep clear lake and we routinely catch fish in the 30' - 40' range. In the old days I wouldn't have even "wasted" my time fishing this deep but here it is normal to fish this deep. I have taken the past year and started to re-learn what the fish are seeking. Find available food and safety (in the form of cover, structure or just deep water) and you will find cooperative fish. Did I mention that Belton has a great smallmouth population?!!?!?!?! What an awesome fish!!

Two keys for me have been to listen to my gut and the patience to stick with a plan, even when it seems to not be working.

So much of this has to do with gut feeling that it's hard to pinpoint... although I suspect it used to be supported by experience or fact.

Sorry to ramble, it seemed like a topic that required some latitude.

-Keith

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Roadwarrior,

Now you're saying "adjacent to" deep water, "next To" deep water. But that isn't the same

as deep water. When you're fishing on a drop-off or even a fast taper, it is very difficult to know

the exact depth of your lure. I know because I'm my own guide. If your lure is directly over

the transducer then you may see it on the sonar (depth sounder),but beyond that it's very difficult

to know. You might be fishing a lot shallower than you realize.

If this discussion evolved around holding structure and not fish depth, I would have specified slopes

with rapid depth change as the paramount structure which takes precedence even over cover!!!

This is the main reason why I never fish any lake before fist obtaining the best hydrographic

or topographic chart available. It's my bible.

Why do you suppose bass prefer to be near a dropoff, to use deep water for escape, to hide from

cold fronts, to avoid diving ospreys, to avoid boats or hot sun. Enter another can of worms:

I believe that the reason bass gravitate to depth drop-offs is none of the above.

I believe that bass only rarely leave the ledge to visit the basin (smallmouth bass excepted).

What are your thoughts on that?

You're right, this is getting to be fun 8-)

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Well, we're getting a little technical and that 's fine. The structure I refer to is in what most people might consider deep water, but "adjacent to" or "next to" even deeper water. My thinking is that the big bass live deep and use the structure as hunting grounds to ambush their prey, staying close and patrolling their territory. This allows a lot of latitude in  moving from  one depth to another in the water column. So in order to escape, hide from cold fronts and avoid trouble, they are very near their deep water home and they don't have to expend a great deal of energy to get back.

As far as leaving their base to hunt, well, I don't think they leave their "territory" but the amount area they roam I suppose would be a function of the concentration of prey. If bass were really smart, they would take up residence next to the ramp where the stocker trout are released!

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rw,

Thanks for the detailed and personal reply. As far as paying attention to your posts, I have an uncanny ability to remember minutiae when I want to ;) I do have a (mental)list of posters on BR to whom I pay special attention, however, and you are certainly near the top of the list. Keep up the good work!

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Can we define Big Bass, Trophy Class fish.    Up north, those are big bass.  In the 70's a 10lber was the "telling tape", not in Tx any more.    

First off, I'm not sure what Peter is refering to about a bass swallowing a jig.  Its early and I haven't read all the posts.

I don't mean to exclude regions who don't produce double digit bass in this discussion.

Big Fish and smarts.   we have a communication gap.   I don't call 7,8,9, trophy fish, they are excellant kickers.    When I think of trophies, 12 and up.

How many of your lakes have cemetaries on he bottom,  old road beds, old underwater bridges, old house, how many have old stock pond with dams on them, uncleared forests, these are types structure in 20,30,40 feet of water.

I take it most people don't fish an old paved road with a bridge over the creek that is submerged in 30ft of water.   Under that old sunken bridge, is shade in the summer, areas under there where a bait has never been.

A road bed in Birch creek, runs across the creek about 300 yds, will average 17-25ft, will have c-rig and 10 boats year round fishing the same road and bridge.   You will see 5 different approaches working most times, french fries, creature baits, jigs, c-rig, t-rig, flukes, spinnerbaits worked deep.

My definition of deep is 1o ft and going.      I do think bass can condition them selves, what kind of intelligence is that?   If they where so dumb, it wouldn't be a challenge.

hookem

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Alright Matt in house bass part three they discussed how a bass will carry a jig around and kind of chew it, like it would a crawfish. But unlike the crawfish or even a soft plastic worm he will inevitabley spitt that jig. I have noticed this also, in bass I have caught. The rig I spoke of will have bass swallow it ocassionally. This is a problem for catch and release. Does this clear up my last post?

Matt when you asked what type of intellegence is that, it is to me, the use of the bass' ability to reason. The fish takes the information that it has collected through past experiences and sensory preception and formed it in to increasingly complex pattern. From, Ow! that hurt, to that did not feel natural and it hurt; to, that did not move naturally and it did not feel natural and it hurt; and so on and so forth until these fish w/o all my wording go through a simular process on their own. They become way of the lure that caught them, then wary of that type of lure. This is what we call conditioning. A Russain scientist in the 1800's named Pavlov did experiments on his do to see ho an animal can be conditioned for a certain response. What type of intellegence is that? The same kind we use to keep our selves from shoving our fingers in a lit candle's flame, twice.

Peter  

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